The study of the planet Earth, the materials of which it is
made, the processes that act on these materials, the products
formed, the history of the planet and its life forms since its
One who is trained and works in any of the geological sciences.
A body of rock identified by lithological (rock type)
characteristics and stratigraphical (age) position. Formations
may be combined into groups or subdivided into members.
A group of igneous rocks whose origin is associated with
seafloor spreading (production of oceanic crust).
Formed or produced in the place where now found.
Orogenic Zone: A
name for the relatively young mountain-forming events of
southern Europe and Asia, by which the rocks of Alps were
The process of the formation of mountains.
Formed or produced elsewhere than in its present place (of
foreign origin or introduced).
Millions of years before the present.
An ocean that occupied the general position of the
Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt; the Mediterranean Sea is a
remnant of Tethys.
(rocks): This is a group of igneous rocks formed at a greater
depth in the Earth.
lavas: A general
term for those lavas (volcanic rocks) displaying pillow
structure and considered to have formed in a subaqueous (marine)
sedimentary rock composed primarily of material formed directly
by precipitation from solution.
A structural shape of a rock on Earth that looks either
circular or elliptical in outline. This feature originates from
the lateral forces of the tectonic movements.
Rocks or minerals that solidified from molten or partly molten
material, i.e. from magma.
Rocks that formed by deposition and consolidation of sediment.
Any rock derived from pre-existing rocks by mineralogical,
chemical and/or structural changes, essentially in the solid
state, in response to marked changes in temperature, pressure
and chemical environment, generally at depth in the Earth’s
This is a term used for the igneous rocks which bear angular
A body of rock characterised by the inclusion of fragments and
blocks of all sizes embedded in a fragmental matrix of
This is a term used for the water of the ocean which is an
environment for sediment accumulation.
A hard and extremely dense sedimentary rock that predominantly
consists of very fine quartz crystals.
limestone consisting of the remains of active reef-building
organisms, such as corals, sponges and of sediment-binding
organic constituents, such as calcareous algae.
A sedimentary rock composed primarily of minerals produced from
a saline solution as a result of extensive or total evaporation
of the solvent (i.e. gypsum).
A limestone predominantly consisting of recycled (redeposited)
calcite particles of sand size.
Pertaining to a rock or sediment composed principally of broken
fragments that are derived from pre-existing rocks or minerals
and that have been transported some distance from their places
The process of one lithospheric plate descending beneath
basin: A low,
depressed area in the Earth’s crust, of tectonic origin, in
which sediments have accumulated.