construction industry is one of the essential industries in
Cyprus that employs a significant portion of the workforce. The reinforced concrete is the most widely used construction
material. Two of
the key components of concrete are sand and gravel, also known
the use of concrete began in Cyprus, marine and river deposits (sand
and gravel) were used as aggregates.
Naturally, these aggregates were the product of eroding
rocks. Because the
major rivers of Cyprus originate from the Troodos Mountains, the
natural aggregates are made of ophiolitic rocks.
Most of these rocks, if examined separately, are not
suitable for the production of concrete due to their chemical
and physical characteristics.
For this reason, but also for environmental protection
purposes, the use of natural aggregates has been abandoned.
source of aggregates is the limestone (recrystallised and
dolomitic) of the Pentadaktylos Range (Hilarion and Sykhari
Formations) in the northern part of Cyprus.
The physical and mechanical properties of the
Pentadaktylos limestone make this material an excellent source
for crushed aggregates. Limestone
from the Pakhna Formation (Terra and Koronia Members) is also
used for the production of crushed aggregates (Fig.
aggregates (Fig. 10
also produced from diabase (Fig.
in the southern part of Cyprus.
Diabase is an intrusive rock of late Cretaceous age with
a microcrystalline texture and basaltic composition and occurs
as dykes in the Sheeted Dyke Complex and the Basal Group of the
Troodos Ophiolite. It
is tough, compact, abrasion resistant, inert to chemical and
physical disintegration and generally free from harmful
diabase outcrop is in excess of 1,000 km²;
it is widely distributed within the igneous complex of the
Troodos Ophiolite and forms a large part of the Troodos Range.
Sand (fine aggregate) is also produced from calcarenite units of the Nicosia and Athalassa Formations. The calcarenite is excavated from open pits and crushed, screened and washed.