Cyprus, building stone was for centuries the main construction
material. The type
of stone was related to the rocks of each area.
In the Troodos Mountains they used rocks from the
ophiolite such as gabbro, diabase, harzburgite etc (Fig.
other areas chalk, limestone and calcarenite were used as
building stones. Calcarenite
was extensively used in Cyprus for the construction of defensive
structures such as the Venetian Walls of Nicosia, castles (Fig.
16), as well as public buildings, churches, mosques and
mansions. There is
a continuing demand for dimension stone for new, and in
particular prestigious, buildings and in the repair of old
calcarenite has recently been increasingly used as rock armour
for marine works. The
main calcarenite quarries are located in Yerolakkos, Ayios
Andronikos, Yialousa, Komma tou Yialou, Mammari and Kivides.
Chalks from the Lefkara or Pakhna Formations are also used as rough dimension stones for pavements (external flooring) and as building stones. The silicified chalks from the lowest horizon of the Lefkara Formation occur in persistent thin bands a few centimetres thick and are exploited in the Lymbia and Lefkara regions. The joints are often stained by limonite, which gives an attractive colour and is used as a facing stone. Laminated chalks at other horizons in the Lefkara Formation are extracted and roughly cut for paving. Similar material is also extracted from some chalky layers of the calcarenites of the Pakhna Formation, west of Limassol at Sotira, Kivides and Prastio as well as between the villages of Melousha and Tremetousia.